"For wisdom, the fashioner of all things, taught me" (Wis 7:22). Some biblical scholars claim that the Holy Spirit can be called "she" because the Holy Spirit is often personified as "wisdom" (a female noun in Hebrew) in the Old Testament. That claim should be rejected on the grounds that it is incompatible with orthodox Jewish tradition, Church Tradition, and lacks support in the New Testament.
Languages have historically permitted male-gendered nouns to be gender inclusive, such as "God created man; male and female He created them" (Gen 1:27). Female-gendered nouns have never been employed alike. This lingual principle, for example, is observed in the epistles of St. Paul, who always employed male-gendered nouns if a male could be present in the audience: "love one another with brotherly affection" (Rom 12:10). Is he somehow excluding women from his apostolic exhortation? Of course not. Historically, when an orator addressed his audience which could contain a man, male-gendered nouns took precedence -- even if one man were present among ninety-nine women -- and only if the audience was exclusively female would language allow: "love one another with sisterly affection." The same principle is observed in Acts, where St. Peter addressed the "men of Judea" and "men of Israel" (Acts 2:14; 22) although women of Judea and Israel were likely present too.
Accordingly, the Holy Spirit, Who has no bodily gender since "God is spirit" (Jn 4:8), is automatically excluded from "she" since female-gendered (pro)nouns have no inclusive meaning. Furthermore, the word "spirit" (pneuma) is neuter in Greek. For these reasons, and for the fact that personal neuter pronouns do not exist in English, "He" is the choice of reason.
Tuesday, July 1, 2014
Tuesday, January 15, 2013
This meditation is upon the "sword" by which our Lord's hearers "rise and fall". To quote Blaise Pascal, 17th century French Catholic mathematician (yes, the guy you learned about in math class), "In faith there is enough light for those who want to believe and enough shadows to blind those who don't."
Risers1. Of the seven men selected to be deacons in the early Church, only Stephen is explicitly described as "a man filled with faith and the Holy Spirit" (Ac 6:5) and "grace and power" (Ac 6:8). Scripture does not state how Stephen became Christian; his narrative begins at his ordination by the apostles (Ac 6:6). Being given the "ministry of the word" (Ac 6:4), he preached the Gospel and debated many groups of people who "could not withstand the wisdom...which he spoke" (Ac 6:10). Unsurprisingly, the Gospel singed the ears of his Jewish "brothers and fathers" (Ac 7:2), who accused him of blasphemy, detained him, and forced him in front of a religious court full of false witnesses. Stephen courageously testified to the history of Israel persecuting their own prophets, while the court "ground their teeth" (Ac 7:54) and "covered their ears" (Ac 7:57) before falling into a murderous rage. Preparing for impending death, Stephen raised his head to a vision of the Blessed Trinity -- "the glory of God and Jesus standing at the right hand of God" (Ac 7:55) -- and then "fell asleep" (Ac 7:60). Interestingly enough, in his vision, Jesus is "standing" at the right hand of God, which is different from other scripture indicating Jesus "seated" (Lk 22:69). Did Jesus rise from His throne to honor Stephen's martyrdom?
2. The man born blind was not only afflicted by lack of sight, but also afflicted by the prejudice of a society that believed his disability was punishment for sin (Jn 9:2). Jesus refuted. On the contrary, the man's disability was allowed "so that the works of God might be made visible through him" (Jn 9:3). When the man "washed and was able to see" (Jn 9:11), "his neighbors and those who had seen him earlier" (Jn 9:8) and the Pharisees all questioned repeatedly how this was possible. They couldn't accept what happened. Rather than believe in a clear miracle, they doubled down on cynicism. Consequently, they intensified their accusations that both Healer and healed were public sinners (Jn 9:24,34), and then threw the man out of the synagogue. The irony of this all is apparent. The Pharisees, who always had natural sight, could not see spiritually the truth about Jesus (Jn 9:41); the man born blind not only gained natural sight, but the eyes of his soul were opened to see that Jesus was "a prophet" (Jn 9:17).
3. Entering Capernaum, Jesus met a centurion who sought healing for his ill servant (Mt 8:5; Lk 7:2). Jesus praised him, a Roman, for his great faith (Mt 8:10), in contrast to the "sons of the kingdom" (Mt 8:12) who should have been the foremost of believers -- after all, salvation belongs to Jews first and Gentiles second (Rm 1:16). Although the centurion loved Israel and built them a synagogue (Lk 7:5), nothing indicates that he believed in Jesus according to Jewish prophecy. How so? The praise of him is similar to the praise of the poor window who put two coins into the Temple treasury (Mk 12:41-44; Lk 21:1-4). If the centurion acted upon proverbial "two coins" worth of knowledge, it explains why Jesus praised him so highly. Rather than deep scriptural insight, his belief in Jesus was informed by his worldly experience of power and authority. As the centurion had the authority to command his servants into action (Mt 8:9), and he himself was also commanded from higher rank, so did Jesus have authority from the Father to command nature. This logic is reminiscent of John's Gospel: "Consider my works, for they prove that I came from the Father. No one could do them unless he was sent by the Father" (Jn 10:38). Indeed, the Roman soldier believed in the words of Jesus -- no matter how small his belief -- and saved the life of his servant.
Fallers4. King Herod Antipas, son of King Herod the Great, is best known for beheading John the Baptist (Mk 6:14-29) and sending Jesus back to Pilate for trial (Lk 23:6-12). Of peculiarity was Herod's relationship with John. Although John publicly accused him of adultery, which greatly provoked Herod's wife into a murderous rage (Mk 6:19), he nevertheless liked John and kept him around -- albeit imprisoned. Why keep John around? Scripture reveals that Herod "was very much perplexed" when John spoke; "yet he liked to listen to him" and identified him as a "righteous and holy man" (Mk 6:20). Unlike many in Herod's court, John was not a sycophant. He spoke daringly to Herod, and, as it seems, Herod was not completely deaf to the truth. He lent his ear to the man who was to "make straight the way of the Lord" (Jn 1:22). The occasion was a period of grace for Herod to think about his marriage. If Herod recognized John as being right about the adultery, his response to the truth was one of prolonged hesitancy before hostility -- like the response of Pilate to Jesus.
5. Someone who walked away from the Gospel was the so-called rich young man. He "knelt down" before Jesus to ask how to "inherit eternal life" (Mk 10:17). After Jesus enumerated the Commandments, which the man affirmed his fidelity from youth, he was advised to sell his "many possessions" for the poor's sake and then follow Jesus, which "at that statement his face fell" (Mk 10:22) and "he went away sad" (Mt 19:22). There is no more mention of the man after his departure. Did he retain his wealth unto folly like in the Parable of the Rich Fool (Lk 12:16-21)? Did he squander it all on a "life of dissipation" before turning around like in the Parable of the Prodigal Son (Lk 15:13-32)? Had he uneventfully "changed his mind" and "did his father's will" like in the Parable of the Two Sons (Mt 21:29-31)? It is unknown how he ultimately fared. What's known is how "hard for one who is rich to enter the kingdom of heaven" (Mt 19:23) -- but not impossible (Mt 19:26).
Monday, December 3, 2012
|"There before me was a great multitude that no one could count, |
from every nation, tribe, people and language, standing before the throne and before the Lamb" (Rev 7:9)
The expression indicates first of all the common sharing of all the members of the Church in holy things: the faith, the sacraments, especially the Eucharist, the charisms, and the other spiritual gifts. At the root of this communion is love which "does not seek its own interests" (1 Cor 13:5) but leads the faithful to "hold everything in common" (Acts 4:32), even to put one's own material goods at the service of the most poor.During the early ministry of the apostles, the word saint meant anyone sanctified by baptism: "To all God's beloved in Rome, who are called to be saints: Grace to you..." (Rom 1:7). The word's meaning expanded over a generation's time; it gained a secondary definition to indicate anyone who entered heaven. This progression of language was a direct result from the culture of Christian martyrdom instituted by pagan Rome. As the apostles and other heroic Christians were being crucified, stoned to death, mauled by lions, burned at the stake, and beheaded, the remaining faithful looked upwards to heaven with pride where their martyred brothers and sisters reigned in Christ's glory.
This expression also refers to the communion between holy persons; that is, between those who by grace are united to the dead and risen Christ. Some are pilgrims on the earth; others, having passed from this life, are undergoing purification and are helped also by our prayers. Others already enjoy the glory of God and intercede for us. All of these together form in Christ one family, the Church, to the praise and glory of the Trinity.
|Hundreds of ancient inscriptions in the Roman catacombs |
asking the martyred Peter and Paul for prayers.
What about today? Following the practice of the early Church, Catholics pray to saints. Orthodox Christians, Lutherans, Anglicans, some Episcopalians, and maybe some Methodists do too because they confess it in the Nicene Creed (a profession of faith declared by the Council of Nicaea in 325 AD). On the other hand, there are many Protestant Christians who disagrees with this practice. Are you one of them? Perhaps my writing will help you see the Bible from another perspective. If you wonder why Catholics "pray to dead people", keep reading. If you believe praying to saints "takes away" glory and power from God, keep reading. If you question why at all if you can "go directly to Christ", keep reading. These all are very good concerns which deserve a systematic explanation.
1. The dead are alive in ChristChrist taught that the physically dead are presently alive with God:
And concerning the resurrection of the dead, have you not read what was said to you by God, "I am the God of Abraham, the God of Issac, and the God of Jacob"? He is not the God of the dead but of the living (Matt 22:31-32).Notice how the words are not "I was the God of Abraham" or "I will be the God of Abraham." The former would be teaching the annihilation of the soul (Abraham ceasing to exist at death). The latter would be teaching the dead are no longer conscience but comatose (like spiritual sleeping) until the Resurrection. Both are errors. Still not convinced? As if Christ's words were not enough, He also took action to demonstrate it:
[Jesus] took with Him Peter and John and James, and went up on the mountain to pray. While He was praying, His face changed in appearance and His clothing became dazzling white. And behold, two men were conversing with Him, Moses and Elijah, who appeared in glory and spoke of His exodus that He was going to accomplish in Jerusalem. Now Peter and those who were with him were heavy with sleep, and when they wakened they saw His glory and the two men who stood with Him. And as the men were parting from Him, Peter said to Jesus, "Master, it is well that we are here; let us make three booths, one for You and one for Moses and one for Elijah" -- not knowing what he said (Luke 9:29-33).Jesus was conversing with two "dead" saints, in front of three living saints, about His forthcoming suffering! Therefore, it is clear that the dead and living are not members of two separate churches but one. There is no tourniquet in in the Body of Christ. Seeing this togetherness, the saints on earth are intimately connected to the saints in heaven. As one New Testament writer has beautifully pictured this unity: "Surrounded by so great a cloud of witnesses" (Heb 12:1).
2. The heavenly saints can hear prayersCan the heavenly saints hear us? The answer is expressly in the affirmative since Moses and Elijah were conversing with Christ on earth. When Peter suggested to build shelters for them all (Luke 9:33; Matt 17:4), it is completely plausible Moses and Elijah heard Peter speak too. However, caution is required using the word "hear" because the dead are separated from their bodies until Resurrection. With no body, the dead have no ears for hearing nor eyes for seeing. How then can the dead hear and see? Simply put, God is God. He is omnipotent. God can imbue the soul with whatever grace necessary to accomplish His most holy will. Just as Peter can be graced to see Moses, so can Moses be graced to hear Peter.
In the Book of Revelation, John had a vision of the hidden activity between heaven and earth. What was the activity? Under the imagery of rising incense, the heavenly saints ("elders") were collecting prayers from Christians on earth. The collected prayers were then offered up to God:
Each of the elders held a harp and gold bowls filled with incense, which are the prayers of the saints (Rev 5:8).In fact, this imagery is remarkably similar to the one in the Book of Genesis. Study and compare:
Another angel came and stood at the altar, holding a gold censer. He was given a great quantity of incense to offer, along with the prayers of all the saints, on the gold altar that was before the throne. The smoke of the incense along with the prayers of the saints went up before God from the hand of the angel (Rev 8:3-4).
The Noah built an altar to the LORD, and choosing from every clean animal and every clean bird, he offered holocausts on the altar. When the LORD smelled the sweet odor, he said to himself: "Never again will I doom the earth because of man, since the desire of man’s heart are evil from the start; nor will I ever again strike down all living begins, as I have done" (Gen 8:20-22).
3. The prayers of heavenly saints are powerfulThink of St. Paul and the many times he asked for prayers: "I urge you, brothers, by our Lord Jesus Christ and by the love of the Spirit, to join me in the struggle by your prayers to God on my behalf" (Rom 15:30). Given that he had direct access to God through the one meditation of Christ (1 Tim 2:5), why did he ask others for prayers? He didn't need to enlist other people. True, but there is an old adage about "power in numbers" -- the prayers of the many are stronger than the prayer of the one.
Likewise, asking the heavenly saints for prayers is useful, but on a much grander scale. Praying to them is enlisting very powerful help because the "fervent prayer of a righteous person is very powerful" (James 5:16). The heavenly saints are perfectly righteous, and their fervor surpasses anyone's on earth. They have no esoteric/magical powers. They aren't a way to "go around" God. No, they are merely at your service in charity by the pleasure of Christ.
Do you have to pray to them? Of course not! You are not obligated to ask your righteous family in Christ to pray for you... but, if you do, your heavenly brothers and sisters are ready for action.